An HIV vaccine may appear in 2021 which will be effective enough for mass use.
Three vaccines are in the final stages of research, and although the final results have not yet been obtained, experts are more than optimistic.
One of the vaccines is a modification of the experimental drug RV144. Although the drug back in 2009 did not demonstrate sufficient efficacy and did not go on sale, a vaccine based on it seems more promising, however, its degree of protection is about 30%. The final results of a study on the effectiveness of this vaccine will be known at the end of 2020 or in 2021. This vaccine is designed for strains of HIV that are common in southern Africa.
As Dr. Susan Buchbinder, director of the joint HIV research program at the San Francisco Health Department, noted, even a partially effective vaccine is already a big success. Susan Buchbinder leads the study of two other HIV vaccines - Imbokodo and Mosaico.
Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the NIAID, has long argued that the world needs a vaccine with an effectiveness of at least 50%, but now he states that even a partially effective vaccine needs to be adopted. According to him, if vaccines are added to other methods of prevention, the effectiveness of which is 50-60%, this can radically change the situation with HIV infection in the world.
Only women are involved in the Imbokodo vaccine study, and is being conducted in 5 South African countries. This vaccine is different from the first: it is a mosaic vector vaccine, that is, it includes fragments of proteins that contain all the main strains of the virus. Therefore, it will be able to provide wider protection in the near future.
The safety of this vaccine was proven in 2018, and vaccination of rhesus mothers with it gave protection in 67% of cases.
Mosaico is also a mosaic vaccine, which was first used recently - in November 2019. Scientists also plan to include 3,800 gay men and transgender people in this study. Its results will be known in 2023.